When Jeff Sutherland created the Scrum process in 1993, he borrowed the term “Scrum” from an analogy put forth in 1986 study by Takeuchi and Nonaka that is published in the Harvard Business Review. In that study, Takeuchi and Nonaka compared high-performing, cross-functional teams to the Scrum formation used by Rugby teams. In the findings from their study, they drew comparisons between two approaches to Product development. The old, less effective way they refer to is a “Relay Race” approach, where each team member was a specialist and the work progressed sequentially. The athletes in a Relay Race take turns to pass on the baton to the next player in a sequence to win the game. Takeuchi and Nonaka suggest a more effective “Rugby-Style” approach, in which a cross-functional team with self-managed roles work together to create a Product. Rugby requires the team as a whole to work together to win the game as shown below.